Compartilhar
Informação da revista
Vol. 96. Núm. 6.
Páginas 771-773 (01 Novembro 2021)
Compartilhar
Compartilhar
Baixar PDF
Mais opções do artigo
Visitas
3770
Vol. 96. Núm. 6.
Páginas 771-773 (01 Novembro 2021)
What is your diagnosis?
Open Access
Case for diagnosis. An exophytic plaque on the chest. Carcinoma of the mammary crease
Visitas
3770
Sonsoles Yáñez-Díaz, Marcos A. González-López
Autor para correspondência
marcosg@aedv.es

Corresponding author.
Dermatology Service, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, University of Cantabria, Cantabria, Spain
Este item recebeu

Under a Creative Commons license
Informação do artigo
Resume
Texto Completo
Bibliografia
Baixar PDF
Estatísticas
Figuras (3)
Mostrar maisMostrar menos
Abstract

Carcinoma of the mammary crease is a very rare variant of breast carcinoma, in which the skin lesions are usually the presenting sign. The authors present the case of an 88-year-old woman with an exophytic plaque in the mammary crease of approximately ten years duration. The histopathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of infiltrative breast carcinoma (carcinoma of the mammary crease variant). This case highlights the important role of the dermatologist in the early diagnosis of this rare variant of breast cancer.

Keywords:
Breast neoplasm
Carcinoma, skin appendage
Neoplasm metastasis
Texto Completo
Case report

An 88-year-old woman was referred to our Department for evaluation of a cutaneous lesion on the chest. The lesion first appeared approximately 10 years ago and had gradually grown over time. She reported that the lesion was asymptomatic, although it bled several times in the last months. Dermatological examination revealed an exophytic, firm, infiltrated, erythematous-purple plaque measuring 6 × 4 cm in the median mammary crease, spreading to both inframammary creases and upper abdomen (Fig. 1). The lesion had well-demarcated borders with a scar-like appearance. There were no adenopathies and breast nodules were not palpable.

Figure 1.

(A and B), Clinical Image. A 6 × 4 cm, infiltrated, erythematous-purple plaque in the median mammary crease, spreading to both inframammary creases and upper abdomen.

(0,16MB).

A biopsy specimen revealed a dermal infiltrate of atypical cells which formed small solid nests within a myxoid stroma. The tumor cells exhibited large nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (Fig.2). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) (Fig. 3), and Bcl-2, but were negative for c-erbB-2.

Figure 2.

Histopathological examination. Neoplastic cells within a myxoid stroma (Hematoxylin & eosin, ×200).

(0,1MB).
Figure 3.

Immunohistochemical staining of the lesion. (a), Positive immunostaining for estrogen receptors (×20). (b), Positive immunostaining for progesterone receptors (×20).

(0,14MB).
What is your diagnosis?

  • a)

    Basal cell carcinoma

  • b)

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

  • c)

    Carcinoma of the mammary crease

  • d)

    Squamous cell carcinoma

The patient was treated with radiotherapy and hormone therapy with tamoxifen with satisfactory results. However, four years later, she was admitted with respiratory failure and progressive deterioration of the general state. A chest X-ray and CT scan showed pleural effusion and bilateral nodular pattern compatible with metastatic spread, and the patient died two months later.

Discussion

Carcinoma of the mammary crease (CMC) is an unusual variant of breast carcinoma, in which the skin lesions are usually the presenting sign.1,2 The true incidence of CMC is difficult to estimate, although it may represent about 1% of breast cancers. Despite skin involvement being a striking feature of CMC, it has been very rarely described in dermatology journals.

The early skin involvement in this particular variant of breast cancer would be related to the anatomical characteristics of the inframammary fold that would explain the tendency of the tumor to invade the dermis or the underlying muscle.3,4 Moreover, in CMC, the breast nodule is not palpable, and it is difficult to detect in mammography because of its peripheral location; therefore, skin manifestations are usually the initial reason for consultation in these patients.

Clinically, CMC may present itself as an ulcerated nodule or as a plaque, polypoid or verrucous lesion, and can simulate an inflammatory lesion, a benign tumor, or a cutaneous carcinoma.1,2,4–6 To this respect, confusion with morpheaform or ulcerated basal cell carcinoma is frequent due to the clinical appearance and chronic course of the lesion, even after histopathological examination.2,5,6 In these cases, only complete extirpation and/or immunohistochemical study, as in the case presented herein, allow a definitive diagnosis.2,6 In the present study’s case, immunostaining showed positivity for ER, PR, and Bcl-2, but negativity for c-erbB-2, corresponding to a luminal A subtype of breast cancer.

In summary, this case highlights the prominent role of the dermatologist in the early diagnosis of CMC, which can contribute significantly to an increase in the survival of these patients.

Financial support

None declared.

Authors’ contributions

Sonsoles Yáñez-Díaz: Approval of the final version of the manuscript; elaboration and writing of the manuscript; intellectual participation in propaedeutic and/or therapeutic conduct of studied cases; critical review of the literature; critical review of the manuscript.

Marcos A. González-López: Approval of the final version of the manuscript; elaboration and writing of the manuscript; critical review of the manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

None declared.

References
[1]
JR Watson, CG Watson.
Carcinoma of the mammary crease. A neglected clinical entity.
JAMA., 209 (1969), pp. 1718-1719
[2]
Y. Dowlati, A. Nedwich.
Carcinoma of mammary crease simulating basal cell epithelioma.
Arch Dermatol., 107 (1973), pp. 628-629
[3]
KA Behranwala, GPH Gui.
Breast cancer in the inframammary fold: is preserving the inframammary fold during mastectomy justified?.
Breast., 11 (2002), pp. 340-342
[4]
A. Sanki, A. Spillane.
Diagnostic and treatment challenges of inframammary crease breast carcinomas.
ANZ J Surg., 76 (2006), pp. 230-233
[5]
M. Waisman.
Carcinoma of the inframammary crease.
Arch Dermatol., 114 (1978), pp. 1520-1521
[6]
F. Vazquez-López, M.F. Fresno, I. Fidalgo, J.M. Arribas, N. Pérez-Oliva.
Carcinoma of the mammary crease simulating rodent ulcer basal cell carcinoma. Report of a case with immunohistochemical analysis.
Dermatol Surg., 23 (1997), pp. 494-495

How to cite this article: Yáñez-Díaz S, González-López MA. Case for diagnosis. An exophytic plaque on the chest. Carcinoma of the mammary crease. An Bras Dermatol. 2021;96:771–3.

Study conducted at the Dermatology Service, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, University of Cantabria, Cantabria, Spain.

Copyright © 2021. Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Idiomas
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia (Portuguese)
Opções de artigo
Ferramentas
en pt
Cookies policy Política de cookies
To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here. Utilizamos cookies próprios e de terceiros para melhorar nossos serviços e mostrar publicidade relacionada às suas preferências, analisando seus hábitos de navegação. Se continuar a navegar, consideramos que aceita o seu uso. Você pode alterar a configuração ou obter mais informações aqui.